3 Teknik untuk Melakukan Web Scraping

Web scraping saat ini menjadi tren yang banyak dilakukan oleh perusahaan atau pun individu untuk tujuan tertentu. Teknik merupakan metode untuk mengekstrasi data dari halaman website. Anda bisa saja secara manual mengcopy detail data dari halaman web ke halaman spreadsheet, namun biasanya data yang ada di dalam website merupakan data yang besar sehingga membutuhkan tempat berkapasitas besar serta waktu yang cukup lama. Oleh karena itu, salah satu cara yang dapat Anda gunakan untuk mengunduh data besar dari website adalah dengan menggunakan “web scraper”.

Web scraper adalah program yang dapat membuka halaman website kemudian mendownload data yang ada di dalam web, mengekstrak ke dalam format yang terstruktur, dan menyimpannya ke dalam sebuah file atau database. Web scraper dapat mengunduh konten yang biasanya berupa teks dan diformat sebagai HTML dari beberapa halaman web dan mengekstrak data darinya. Beberapa teknik yang dapat Anda gunakan untuk membantu proses web scraping adalah :

1. HTML Parsing

HTML Parsing merupakan metode yang paling sering digunakan dalam proses parsing data dari halaman website. Pada umumnya, HTML parsing dilakukan menggunakan JavaScript dan menargetkan halaman HTML linear dan nested. Script ini digunakan untuk mengekstraksi tulisan, link dan data.

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2. DOM Parsing

Untuk mengetahui cara kerja internal halaman website dan mengekstrak script yang berjalan di dalamnya, Anda dapat melakukan web scraping menggunakan parsing DOM ( Document Object Model ) . Dengan bantuan web browser, progam dapat mengakses dynamic content dari script client-side yang sudah dibuat. 

3. Regular Expressions

Metode ini berguna jika Anda ingin melakukan tugas ekstraksi data yang sederhana. Sebagai contoh seperti ketika Anda ingin mendapatkan daftar semua email dari halaman web. Regular Expressions ini tidak cocok untuk pekerjaan ekstraksi yang rumit, seperti mengekstrak data dari beberapa halaman deskripsi produk di situs web E-commerce. Namun akan sangat berguna untuk proses transformasi dan pembersihan data.

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