Peran dan Fungsi Web Server dalam Sebuah Website

Untuk membuat sebuah website yang baik, diperlukan beberapa komponen penting. Salah satu komponen tersebut adalah sebuah web server. Jika Anda adalah seorang web developer, istilah ini tentu sudah tidak asing lagi untuk Anda. Web server merupakan sebuah perangkat yang bertugas untuk menerima permintaan yang telah dikirim melalui browser. Web server kemudian akan memberikan respon dalam bentuk halaman situs web atau lebih umumnya dalam bentuk dokumen HTML. Tanpa adanya komponen ini, website yang telah Anda buat tidak dapat berjalan atau tidak dapat diakses. 

Terdapat dua pengertian mengenai web server ini, yaitu sebagai bagian dari hardware dan juga software. Web server yang merujuk pada hardware berguna untuk menyimpan semua data berupa dokumen HTML, gambar, file CSS stylesheets, dan file Javascripts. Jika web server merujuk pada software maka fungsi web server adalah sebagai pusat kontrol untuk memproses permintaan yang telah diterima melalui sebuah browser.

Web server berperan dalam mengatur dan menjadi penghubung komunikasi yang terjadi antara browser dengan server ketika memproses sebuah halaman website. Saat Anda membuka website, browser akan mengirimkan permintaan ke server yang akan diproses oleh web server. Web server akan melakukan pengecekan keamanan, kemudian HTTP request dikirimkan ke web server.  HTTP request yang dikirimkan akan diproses dengan bantuan HTTP server. Setelah itu, web server mengirimkan data kembali yang berupa HTTPS response ke browser dan memprosesnya menjadi halaman sebuah website. 

Web server akan memberikan respon dan mentransfer data sesuai dengan request yang diminta oleh client. Dalam sebuah website biasanya terdapat beragam data seperti teks, video, dan lainnya. Namun jika web server tidak dapat menemukan file yang diminta, maka web server akan mengirimkan informasi berupa pesan Error 404 Not Found.

Selain fungsi yang telah dibahas sebelumnya, terdapat beberapa peran dan fungsi web server lain dalam sebuah website, yaitu :

1. Melakukan pengecekan keamanan HTTP request yang dikirim oleh browser

2. Memastikan bahwa modul yang dibutuhkan tersedia dan dapat digunakan

3. Membersihkan penyimpanan dan cache yang tidak digunakan

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